Academic Writing and Research Skills Assignment Example

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Academic Writing and Research Skills


Academic research and writing are integral components of higher education, serving as the cornerstone for knowledge dissemination, critical thinking, and intellectual growth(Sysoyev, Sorokin, and Evstigneeva, 2023).Academic research is a systematic process of inquiry aimed at expanding knowledge within a particular field of study. It involves the identification of a research problem, the collection and analysis of relevant data, and the formulation of conclusions based on evidence. Academic writing, on the other hand, is the formal presentation of research findings and arguments through written discourse. It is a skill that demands clarity, coherence, and adherence to established conventions.

Critically, academic research and writing are not mere exercises in information transmission; they represent a dynamic interplay of ideas, a process of engaging with existing knowledge and contributing to it(Dobele and Veer, 2018). A successful academic work should not only present facts but also critically evaluate them, challenging established norms and encouraging intellectual discourse.

Different Academic Writing Conventions

Academic writing conventions provide a set of rules and guidelines that govern how ideas are communicated in scholarly works. These conventions vary across disciplines, but some common elements include clarity, precision, objectivity, and evidence-based reasoning.

Citation and Referencing: A crucial convention in academic writing is the proper citation and referencing of sources. It not only gives credit to the original authors but also allows readers to trace the origins of the information and evaluate its reliability.

Formal Tone and Style: Academic writing is characterized by a formal tone and style known as the academic voice.It involves avoiding colloquial language, slang, or overly complex jargon(Dobele and Veer, 2018). The goal is to communicate ideas in a manner that is accessible to a broad academic audience.

Structure and Organization: The design of academic writing typically includes an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. This framework provides a logical progression of ideas and allows readers to follow the author’s argumentation(Sysoyev, Sorokin, and Evstigneeva, 2023).

Objectivity and Critical Analysis: Academic writing should be objective and impartial. While presenting arguments and evidence, authors are expected to analyze information critically, acknowledging different perspectives and potential limitations in their research.

Different Types of Academic Research

Academic research comes in various forms, each serving a specific purpose and methodology. Understanding these types is essential for researchers to choose the most appropriate approach for their inquiries.Fundamental research aims to expand the existing body of knowledge without a specific application in mind. It seeks to answer theoretical questions and enhance understanding within a particular field.Applied research, in contrast, is directed toward solving practical problems(Dewasiri, Abeysekera, and Samarasinghe, 2019). It takes existing knowledge and applies it to address specific issues, often with immediate real-world implications.Quantitative research involves the collection and analysis of numerical data to identify patterns, relationships, and trends. This type of research is common in fields such as statistics, economics, and psychology.Qualitative research focuses on non-numerical data, such as interviews, observations, or case studies, to gain an in-depth understanding of phenomena. It is often used in disciplines like sociology, anthropology, and literature.

In conclusion, academic research and writing are foundational components of scholarly pursuits, fostering the advancement of knowledge and critical thinking. The diverse conventions of academic writing and the different types of research methodologies are essential for researchers to contribute meaningfully to their respective fields. As the educational landscape continues to evolve, a critical approach to research and writing becomes increasingly crucial, encouraging a culture of intellectual curiosity and rigor in understanding academic research.


Dewasiri, N.J., Abeysekera, N. and Samarasinghe, G.D. (2019). Book Review: A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports by Senior Prof. Dr. Mangala Fonseka and Dr. Athula Manawaduge. Vidyodaya Journal of Management, 5(2). doi:

Dobele, A.R. and Veer, E. (2018). My best writing space: understanding academics self-professed writing spaces. Higher Education. Doi:

Sysoyev, P.V., Sorokin, D.O. and Evstigneeva, I.A. (2023). The development of university research scholars’ and faculty’s competence in academic writing. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovaniâ, 61(1), pp.658–671. Doi:


Report on Employee Training and Retention in The Tourism and Hospitality Sector

Executive Summary

In the Tourism and Hospitality sector, the significance of a skilled and diverse workforce cannot be overstated.The chosen report by Ghani et al. (2022) illustrates that the challenges of recruiting, training, and retaining qualified personnel are particularly pronounced during peak seasons. The tourism and hospitality sector faces multifaceted difficulties in staff retention and training. High turnover rates are typical due to seasonal fluctuations, irregular working hours, and demanding customer service expectations. Training programs need to address diverse skills, including interpersonal communication, cultural sensitivity, and technical proficiency, often requiring significant investments of time and resources.

Additionally, the industry’s dynamic nature necessitates continuous adaptation to evolving trends, technologies, and guest preferences, posing ongoing challenges in keeping staff abreast of industry developments. Balancing the need for standardization with the desire for personalized service further complicates training efforts. Employee motivation and job satisfaction are pivotal, and addressing these issues becomes crucial in an industry where staff engagement directly impacts customer experience. The sector must navigate these intricate challenges to cultivate a skilled, motivated, and stable workforce for sustained success.The analyzed paper has included various strategies in their research that illustrate academic writing principles.

  1. Comparison of Information Sources:

The paper draws from a variety of sources to construct a comprehensive argument. Primary sources include interviews with industry experts, surveys conducted within the sector, and data collected directly from participating organizations. These primary sources offer firsthand insights into the challenges faced by the industry and provide a nuanced understanding of the workforce’s needs and expectations.

Secondary sources, on the other hand, encompass academic studies, industry reports, and statistical data from relevant government agencies(Chawla,2021). These sources contribute to the paper by providing a broader context, supporting the arguments with established theories and industry trends. The synthesis of primary and secondary sources enables a well-rounded analysis of the issues at hand.

  1. Research Process:

The research process undertaken by the authors involved a systematic and thorough approach. The initial phase comprised a literature review and secondary research to establish a foundational understanding of the broader industry context and existing studies on employee training and retention(Kumar, 2021). This step was crucial in identifying gaps in the current knowledge base and framing specific research questions.

The subsequent phase involved primary research methods, such as conducting interviews with key stakeholders, administering surveys to employees across various organizations, and collecting on-the-ground data during peak seasons(Ghani et al., 2022). The combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches allowed for a comprehensive exploration of the challenges faced by the industry and the effectiveness of existing training and retention practices.

The authors also engaged in participatory observation, immersing themselves in the industry environment to gain firsthand experiences and insights. This ethnographic approach added a qualitative dimension to the research, offering a deep understanding of the day-to-day realities that impact employee satisfaction and well-being.

  1. Differentiation between Primary and Secondary Research:

Primary research is evident in the paper through the inclusion of direct quotes from interviews, survey findings, and firsthand observations. These elements provide unique and current perspectives, allowing the authors to capture the nuances of the industry’s workforce dynamics.On the other hand, secondary research is evident in the incorporation of established theories, statistical data, and findings from existing studies(Chawla, 2021). The paper critically evaluates and builds upon this existing body of knowledge to contextualize the primary research findings within the broader industry landscape.


In conclusion, the paper on employee training and retention in the hospitality and tourism industry sector employs a robust research methodology that combines primary and secondary sources to construct a comprehensive and insightful analysis. By delving into the challenges faced during peak seasons and emphasizing the importance of employee satisfaction and well-being, the paper offers valuable insights for industry stakeholders aiming to enhance their workforce management strategies.


Chawla, S., (2021). Factors Affecting Employee Retention Strategies Hospitality Sector. , 12, pp. 1861-1872.

Ghani, B., Zada, M., Memon, K.R., Ullah, R., Khattak, A., Han, H., Ariza-Montes, A. and Araya-Castillo, L. (2022). Challenges and Strategies for Employee Retention in the Hospitality Industry: A Review. Sustainability, [online] 14(5), p.2885. doi:

King, B., & Tang, C., (2020). Employee preferences for industry retention strategies: The case of Macau’s “Golden Nest Eggs.” International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 21, pp. 115 – 140.

Kumar, S. (2021). A Study on Adept Soft Skill & Knowledge Accompanying Hospitality Employee Retention Behavior During Covid-19 Lockdown Phase. Anais Brasileiros de Estudos Turísticos – ABET.


Critical Thinking: A Fundamental Skill in Academic Research and Hospitality Management

Critical thinking is a cognitive process that involves analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing information to make reasoned judgments. It is an intellectual discipline that goes beyond simply accepting or memorizing information but rather encourages individuals to question assumptions, consider alternative perspectives, and develop well-reasoned conclusions. In essence, critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding the logical connection between ideas. In the context of academic research and the dynamic field of hospitality and tourism, critical thinking plays a pivotal role in shaping informed decisions, solving complex problems, and fostering innovation.

One of the key components of critical thinking is the development of various skills that collectively contribute to the ability to think critically. These skills can be broadly categorized into analytical, evaluative, creative, and problem-solving skills.

Analytical skills involve breaking down complex information into its constituent parts to understand their interrelationships. In academic research, this skill is crucial for comprehending the nuances of a research question, dissecting data sets, and identifying patterns or trends. In hospitality and tourism, analytical skills are applied to assess market trends, consumer behavior, and operational challenges. For example, a hotel manager may use analytical thinking to examine customer feedback data and identify areas for service improvement.

Evaluative skills encompass the ability to assess the credibility, relevance, and quality of information. This involves questioning the source of information, considering potential biases, and discerning the validity of arguments. In academic research, evaluative skills are essential for critically appraising existing literature, methodologies, and conclusions. In the hospitality sector, these skills are crucial for assessing the effectiveness of marketing strategies, customer satisfaction surveys, and employee performance evaluations.

Creative thinking involves generating innovative ideas and solutions. It requires thinking outside conventional boundaries and considering alternative perspectives. In academic research, creative thinking contributes to the development of novel hypotheses and research designs. In the hospitality industry, creative thinking is essential for designing unique guest experiences, developing new tourism products, and staying ahead of industry trends.

Problem-solving skills are integral to critical thinking, involving the ability to devise effective solutions to complex issues. In academic research, researchers often encounter methodological or analytical challenges that require creative problem-solving. In hospitality and tourism, problem-solving skills are applied to address issues ranging from customer complaints to logistical challenges in event management. A tour operator, for instance, might employ problem-solving skills to navigate unforeseen logistical obstacles during a travel itinerary.

Critical thinking is particularly crucial in academic research as it forms the foundation for producing high-quality, rigorous research. Research is not a linear process; it involves continuous questioning, refinement, and adaptation. Critical thinking ensures that researchers approach their work with a discerning mindset, avoiding pitfalls such as confirmation bias and unwarranted assumptions. By engaging in systematic analysis and evaluation, researchers can produce findings that withstand scrutiny and contribute meaningfully to the existing body of knowledge.

In the hospitality and tourism sector, critical thinking is equally vital for effective decision-making and problem-solving. The industry operates in a dynamic environment where trends, consumer preferences, and competitive landscapes evolve rapidly. Managers and professionals must navigate these changes, often with limited information and under tight deadlines. Critical thinking enables them to assess situations objectively, consider various options, and make informed decisions that align with organizational goals.

Let’s apply critical thinking techniques to evaluate an argument relevant to hospitality and tourism. Consider the following scenario: A hotel manager argues that implementing a new digital check-in system will significantly enhance guest satisfaction.

Firstly, using analytical skills, we would examine the components of this argument. What evidence or data supports the claim that a digital check-in system improves guest satisfaction? Are there studies or examples from other hotels that demonstrate positive outcomes? Analyzing the argument requires breaking it down to understand the underlying assumptions and the logical connections between them.

Next, evaluative skills come into play. We question the reliability of the information provided by the hotel manager. Has the manager considered potential drawbacks or challenges associated with implementing a digital check-in system, such as technical glitches or resistance from guests? Evaluating the argument involves critically assessing its strengths and weaknesses, considering alternative perspectives, and weighing the overall validity of the claim.

Creative thinking allows us to explore alternative solutions or enhancements to the proposed digital check-in system. Are there additional features that could further improve the guest experience? Could a hybrid approach that combines digital and traditional check-in methods be more effective? Creative thinking broadens the scope of the analysis and opens the door to innovative possibilities.

Lastly, problem-solving skills help us address any potential challenges or obstacles associated with the implementation of the digital check-in system. How can the hotel mitigate concerns related to data security or ensure a seamless transition for guests unfamiliar with digital processes? Problem-solving involves anticipating and addressing potential issues to enhance the feasibility and success of the proposed solution.

In conclusion, critical thinking is a foundational skill that underpins academic research and is indispensable in the dynamic field of hospitality and tourism. The development of analytical, evaluative, creative, and problem-solving skills enables individuals to approach challenges with a systematic and discerning mindset. Whether in the pursuit of knowledge through research or in the day-to-day operations of the hospitality industry, critical thinking empowers individuals to make informed decisions, solve complex problems, and contribute meaningfully to their respective fields.


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