How to write Dissertation Summary
The work of students during the academic year raises fundamental questions about learning impacts on their current and future well-being. This thesis examines the effects of student work on academic performance, on graduation, the academic pursuit and the availability of scholarships. This thesis also analyzes the impact of financial support towards work and hours of study. The first test looks for reasons why employing students during academic years affects academic performance. This test examines whether the drop in hours of study is the only reason why employment leads to decreased academic performance. We define the partial production function to identify the impact on academic performance from an increase in hours of work when the adjustment is done only by leisure. In this test, using the partial production function, we show that most studies on the impacts of work on school performance are likely to be strongly biased for ignoring hours of study in the model.
We find that the decline in hours of study is not the only factor by which the job entails a decline in academic performance. Students' work negatively affects their academic performance through declining hours of study and reduction of leisure. However, the effects, though significant, are small.
The second essay analyzes the unobservable heterogeneity of effects of employment during the academic year on academic performance. With the quartile regression model, instrumental variable for Panel data using partial production function, we determine an approximate function of the cumulative distribution of subjective academic performance of the student after working hours and hours devoted to study in order to estimate different counterfactuals quintiles.
These different counterfactuals quintiles analyze the effects of the work of students on academic performance, on graduation, the academic pursuit and the availability of scholarships. They also determine the percentage of students who could be penalized by employment.
We find that the effects of work vary according to levels of academic performance. The negative effect tends to increase when school performance increases. We find a simulation that employment would not affect graduation when adjustment is done through leisure. However, it would negatively affect the ability of academic pursuit and jeopardize the chance of getting scholarships.
While the first two tests determine the effects of employment on academic results, the third essay analyzes the effects of financial support in particular parental transfers, subsidies, grants and loans on two main activities of students: work and study. In this essay, we analyze the various financial supports and their evolution in time, then we analyze the relationship of dependence between financial support and the hours of work and study. In addition, we use the generalized method of moments, the model nonlinear dynamic Tobit Wooldridge (2005) and the estimator of Arellano and Bond (1991) to determine the effects of financial support to the work and the hours of study.
We find that financial support differently affects work and hours of study. Parental transfers lead to a reduction of working hours for students during the 4-year college cycle. Grants and awards significantly affect labor participation, while loans result in higher participation in work except for students Boys 4-year college. In addition, parental transfers and loans result in higher hours of study for the 4-year college for students as grants and scholarships do not significantly affect the hours of study.
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