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Part A

Maintaining a healthy society is one of the most critical demands of modern administrations globally.  According to nursing researchers, a healthy community provides an effective platform for growth and development in a country. Poor health concern among people is one of the main problems that may deter global development visions. One such health problem is AIDS epidemic. While the demand to address the problem has been mounting over the years, practices crucial to establishing the prevalence and seeking the correct measures have not been effective.

Research conducted by the Center for Disease and Control (CDC) presents disturbing statistics which indicate that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among certain nations is rising while decreasing in other regions (El-Baasel et al., 2009). While related studies reveal that state agencies do not sufficiently factor salient issues which are necessary in reducing infections among citizens, others show that lack of adequate knowledge among healthcare professionals limit efforts necessary to address the problem. These failures mainly resulted from non-decision that rendered policy formulation.

The reason for the choice of this topic is based on the need to improve awareness and healthcare provision in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Besides, nursing research is critical for nursing education since it aids in generating knowledge on nursing roles, characteristics of nurses, provision of healthcare services, nursing administration and nursing education.

According to CDC reports, over one million Americans currently have AIDS (El-Baasel et al., 2009).  CDC continues to put forward more disturbing statistics by indicating that every year, the infected number increases by 40,000 (El-Baasel et al., 2009). AIDS is not only a problem in the US alone. HIV in Europe has continued to grow, a factor that is contributed to late diagnosis among other primary reasons. It is from this consideration that the need to address the problem has taken center stage both locally and internationally. Notably, about half a million people have been reported dead since the first case was identified in the United States. This has further left communities wondering what would actually happen to the latter generations. Is there hope for the future generations? Can the problem be addressed effectively? Such questions are yet to be answered.
Due to its vast implications and widespread implications, HIV/AIDS has been given a key focus in the Healthy People initiative.  The Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the US and Europe has focused on the main objective that has been to reduce the number of those people who have HIV particularly among females taking into consideration the large number of women affected every year.

The revision of the initial objective which considered HIV reduction from a general point of view to a greater focus on women has further made it more realistic because the infection manifests itself more in females than in men.  Reports from the Center for Disease and Control and Prevention indicated that the revised objective has made more infections to be identified and treated while prevention strategies have equally been emphasized (El-Baasel et al., 2009).  However, with most men acting as passive carriers, there is need to further emphasize on their screening to address the problem holistically.

Researchers indicate that by seeking early treatment, it is possible to assimilate the correct diet, establish a regular medical routine to check on progress, and get the necessary counseling.  These culminate into better health and longer lives that reduce the total number of deaths from HIV. To effectively address the problem of HIV in the society, it is critical for counseling to be assimilated at all levels of health facilities. Using counseling, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial.

PART B: Synopses of studies
Study# 1:

El-Baasel  N., Caldeira, N., Ruglass, L., & Gilbert, L. (2009). Addressing the unique   needs of African American women in HIV prevention.  American Journal of            Public Health, 99(6), 996-1001.
The purpose of conducting any study is to develop a clear understanding of issues under investigation. Of particular interest in the article by El-Baasel et al (2009) is how it clearly explains what needs to be investigated. It focuses on the problem of HIV/AIDS infection in the US. It also highlights the gap towards effective prevention and adoption of a qualitative approach for investigation.
EL-Baasel et al. (2009) use a list of databases and various articles previously written in a bid to offer readers an objective account of the problem of HIV infection in the USA. Particularly, the article represents a research that was carried out to review key empirical findings on sexually transmitted infection prevention program among the adolescents. Therefore the study was carried out to review these programs and their efficiencies among the adolescents visiting hospitals with the same infections. Notably, as EL-Baasel et al. (2009) indicates, sexually transmitted infections are some of the most important infections that affect the adolescents. Therefore, the target population was focused towards the adolescents due to their highly active sexual nature at their age.
To achieve the objective of the study in determining the efficacy of the methodologies that were employed by the clinicians in addressing the sexually transmitted diseases, the researchers used the available statistics and literature on the topic from the health units practicing it. Though this method could have failed to grasp the situation during the time of the research, the statistical changes gave a better progression on the efficacy of these methods.

From the study conclusion and recommendations, the sexually transmitted infection risk reduction programs were indicated to have major potential in addressing the problem among the adolescents. The study and recommendations are therefore critical in the current society as they give the necessary impetus for such programs establishments.

This article was an above average one because of the succinctness that it presented the factual information with. Besides, it can be considered to be highly timely and the author evaluated enough resources considering the length of the article. However, the language was very technical and at times hard for a non medic specialist to comprehend.

Study# 2:

Kiki, A., Nyamathi, A., Maliski, S., Ford, C., Hudson, A., & Koniak-Griffin, A. (2012). She decides: sex partner selection decision making and African American women. Journal of Black Studies 43(8), 872-892.

This resource is a comprehensive review of HIV/AIDS in the society. It provides basic information by showing key statistics on the number of people that get infected in the US, those living with HIV and how different groups are infected. It also does a comparison of the prevalence of HIV in the US with other communities. It further answers the question whether people still die from HIV and outlines why it is important to learn more about the pandemic. The resource is a critical reflection of the great danger that HIV/AIDS present to the community up to date and why government efforts should be complemented with behavioral changes at the community and personal level.

Kiki et al. (2012) purpose for conducting this study was to establish key influences that are related to sexual-risk taking for African American women. Using a qualitative study model, the researcher found that many African American women based their sexual risk taking behavior on intimacy from partners.

Study# 3:

Neblett, R., Davey-Rothwell, D., Chander, G., and Latkin, C. (2011). Social network   characteristics and HIV social network characteristics and hiv sexual risk           behavior among urban African American women. Journal of Urban Health    88(1), 54–65.
The article by Neblett et al. (2011) in the study on HIV sexual risk behavior among Urban Afrcan American women goes a long way in achieving high levels of reliability and validity. This particular research employs a qualitative approach. This is reflected from the methods of obtaining data which include observation and use of interviews. Like many related studies which employ only one model or two methods to measure different variables during the study, every measure in this study has been assessed using a different model and results further correlated to test the study hypothesis. For instance, it begins from interviews. The data obtained are then transcribed and analyzed.
In the literature review, HIV infection is highlighted in this resource as one of the greatest crises to befall humanity. The author narrates how the infection continues to spread especially among the urban communities and the African American women. Neblett et al. (2011) deeply evaluate and laments that the main cause of this rapid spread is failure to appreciate simple and affordable methods of prevention.

Study# 4:

Adler, A., Mournier-Jack, S. & Coker, R.  (2009). Late diagnosis of HIV in Europe:      definition and public health challenges. Aids Care 21(3), 284-293.
The purpose of conducting any research is to come up with better understanding of the underlying issues. The findings are then used by a researcher or relevant groups in the levering of decision making and other considerations. The current undertaking on HIV/AIDS in Europe has resulted into divergent views mainly drawn from HIV understanding among health practitioners. From a medical point of view, it is estimated that over 60% of HIV cases in society are transmitted via sexual contact and therefore raises the possibility of people with more than one sexual partner acquiring it (Adler, Mournier-Jack & Coker, 2009).
The rising cases of HIV infection and late diagnosis among communities in Europe requires careful redress to improve efficiency in fighting spread and loss of live due to HIV infections as the author points out. The article raises the concerns that most health agencies are concerned with creating awareness and that have the ability to conduct tests are not effective a major factor that greatly raises health challenges. Though the article points out the concerns of possible infections and ethics of diagnosis being a major obstacle, they can be carefully addressed. 
This article carefully navigates readers’ minds on the possibility to achieve the main objectives of early diagnosis.  Particularly, it effectively brings out the interconnectedness of the different stakeholders in accomplishing the mission of HIV eradication.  However, why has the healthcare service providers failed to conduct early HIV testing objectives? The authors seek to answer this question by indicating that early diagnosis must be encompassed on a larger framework with HIV prevention objective at all levels.

Part C: Summary and conclusions

It is evident from the above discussion that HIV is indeed one of the greatest threats to humanity due to its fast-spreading nature and most importantly, lack of effective cure.  As a result, there is needed for further studies to establish possible treatment and management methods and therefore reduce the current negative impacts. Research institutions should therefore work together in effecting the primary, secondary and most importantly tertiary methods of addressing the problem.

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